G-quadruplex RNA
G-quadruplex RNA structures are quite similar to G-quadruplex DNA but thermodynamically more stable than G-quadruplex DNA. This stability is due to the presence of 2' hydroxyl group in the ribose sugar of RNA. G-quadruplex RNA portray important role in translational regulation, chromatin remodeling, telomerase activity etc. The field of G-quadruplex RNA has emerged after the discovery of G-rich telomeric repeat-containing RNAs (TERRA). These are the transcript product corresponding to G-rich strands which are involved in functional regulation of telomere. In recent studies G-quadruplex has been found in the introns, exons and regulatory region of different genes transcript e.g. GGGGCC hexanucleotide repeat present in noncoding region of C9ORF72 gene which form the G-quadruplex structure that deregulates the gene expression at RNA level. These G quadruplex structures cause pathogenicity either by RNA gain-of-function or protein loss-of-function, thus RNA G-quadruplex structures are promising drug targets for various disease such as Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).